- 16 years of spatial data science (since 2005)
- 14 years of mobility research (since 2007)
- 13 years of QGIS (since 2008)
- 8 years of QGIS PSC (since 2013)
- 3 years of MovingPandas (since 2018)
- 2 years of OSGeo board of directors (2015-2017)
- 7 books on QGIS
I am a spatial data scientist, open source GIS advocate, and author. This blog was born in 2010 as a place to record my thoughts and experiences using open source GIS.
My background is in information technology specializing in geographic information science and I am currently working with the Austrian Institute of Technology in Vienna. I am also teaching a class on QGIS and Python at UNIGIS Salzburg and serve on the QGIS project steering committee. From 2015 to 2017, I served on the OSGeo board of directors.
I have published several books about QGIS, including “Learning QGIS” and “QGIS Map Design”.
You can follow me on Twitter @underdarkGIS.
The contents of this blog, unless stated otherwise, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license.
- Geospatial World Rising Star 2021
- Futurezone Women in Tech Award 2020
- Sol Katz Award 2020 for Geospatial Free and Open Source Software
- RedHat 2020 Women in Open Source Award Finalist
- Best Student Paper Award at AGIT | GI_Forum 2019
- Noteworthy young professional – “40 Under 40” by xyHt in 2016
- Runner-up “Opening Up The Map” FOSS4G Nottingham 2013
The information in this blog is provided as is with no warranties. This blog solely represent my personal opinion and not the opinions or strategies of my employer.
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The following data protection declaration aims to inform the general public of the nature, scope, and purpose of the personal data collected and processed. Furthermore, data subjects are informed of the rights to which they are entitled.
Internet-based data transmissions may in principle have security gaps, so absolute protection may not be guaranteed.
This data protection declaration is based on the terms used by the European legislator for the adoption of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). This data protection declaration should be legible and understandable for the general public. To ensure this, we would like to first explain the terminology used.
In this data protection declaration, we use, inter alia, the following terms:
a) Personal data
Personal data means any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (“data subject”). An identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person.
b) Data subject
Data subject is any identified or identifiable natural person, whose personal data is processed by the controller responsible for the processing.
Processing is any operation or set of operations which is performed on personal data or on sets of personal data, whether or not by automated means, such as collection, recording, organisation, structuring, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, restriction, erasure or destruction.
d) Restriction of processing
Restriction of processing is the marking of stored personal data with the aim of limiting their processing in the future.
Profiling means any form of automated processing of personal data consisting of the use of personal data to evaluate certain personal aspects relating to a natural person, in particular to analyse or predict aspects concerning that natural person’s performance at work, economic situation, health, personal preferences, interests, reliability, behaviour, location or movements.
Pseudonymisation is the processing of personal data in such a manner that the personal data can no longer be attributed to a specific data subject without the use of additional information, provided that such additional information is kept separately and is subject to technical and organisational measures to ensure that the personal data are not attributed to an identified or identifiable natural person.
g) Controller or controller responsible for the processing
Controller or controller responsible for the processing is the natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data; where the purposes and means of such processing are determined by Union or Member State law, the controller or the specific criteria for its nomination may be provided for by Union or Member State law.
Processor is a natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which processes personal data on behalf of the controller.
Recipient is a natural or legal person, public authority, agency or another body, to which the personal data are disclosed, whether a third party or not. However, public authorities which may receive personal data in the framework of a particular inquiry in accordance with Union or Member State law shall not be regarded as recipients; the processing of those data by those public authorities shall be in compliance with the applicable data protection rules according to the purposes of the processing.
j) Third party
Third party is a natural or legal person, public authority, agency or body other than the data subject, controller, processor and persons who, under the direct authority of the controller or processor, are authorised to process personal data.
Consent of the data subject is any freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous indication of the data subject’s wishes by which he or she, by a statement or by a clear affirmative action, signifies agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her.
2. Name and Address of the controller
Controller for the purposes of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), other data protection laws applicable in Member states of the European Union and other provisions related to data protection is:
The data subject may, at any time, prevent the setting of cookies through our website by means of a corresponding setting of the Internet browser used, and may thus permanently deny the setting of cookies. Furthermore, already set cookies may be deleted at any time via an Internet browser or other software programs. This is possible in all popular Internet browsers. If the data subject deactivates the setting of cookies in the Internet browser used, not all functions of our website may be entirely usable.
4. Collection of general data and information
This website collects a series of general data and information when a data subject or automated system calls up the website. This general data and information are stored in the server log files. Collected may be (1) the browser types and versions used, (2) the operating system used by the accessing system, (3) the website from which an accessing system reaches our website (so-called referrers), (4) the sub-websites, (5) the date and time of access to the Internet site, (6) an Internet protocol address (IP address), (7) the Internet service provider of the accessing system, and (8) any other similar data and information that may be used in the event of attacks on our information technology systems.
This general data and information is not used to draw any conclusions about the data subject. Rather, this information is needed to (1) deliver the content of our website correctly, (2) optimize the content of our website. Therefore, we analyze anonymously collected data and information statistically.
5. Comments function in the blog on the website
This website offers users the possibility to leave individual comments on individual blog contributions. If a data subject leaves a comment on the blog published on this website, the comments made by the data subject are also stored and published, as well as information on the date of the commentary and on the user’s (pseudonym) chosen by the data subject. In addition, the IP address assigned by the Internet service provider (ISP) to the data subject is also logged. This storage of the IP address takes place for security reasons, and in case the data subject violates the rights of third parties, or posts illegal content through a given comment. The storage of these personal data is, therefore, in the own interest of the data controller, so that he can exculpate in the event of an infringement. This collected personal data will not be passed to third parties, unless such a transfer is required by law or serves the aim of the defense of the data controller.
6. Subscription to comments in the blog on the website
The comments made in this blog may be subscribed to by third parties. In particular, there is the possibility that a commenter subscribes to the comments following his comments on a particular blog post.
If a data subject decides to subscribe to the option, the controller will send an automatic confirmation e-mail to check the double opt-in procedure as to whether the owner of the specified e-mail address decided in favor of this option. The option to subscribe to comments may be terminated at any time.
7. Routine erasure and blocking of personal data
The data controller shall process and store the personal data of the data subject only for the period necessary to achieve the purpose of storage, or as far as this is granted by the European legislator or other legislators in laws or regulations to which the controller is subject to.
If the storage purpose is not applicable, or if a storage period prescribed by the European legislator or another competent legislator expires, the personal data are routinely blocked or erased in accordance with legal requirements.
8. Rights of the data subject
a) Right of confirmation
Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to obtain from the controller the confirmation as to whether or not personal data concerning him or her are being processed.
b) Right of access
Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to obtain from the controller free information about his or her personal data stored at any time and a copy of this information. Furthermore, the European directives and regulations grant the data subject access to the following information:
- the purposes of the processing;
- the categories of personal data concerned;
- the recipients or categories of recipients to whom the personal data have been or will be disclosed, in particular recipients in third countries or international organisations;
- where possible, the envisaged period for which the personal data will be stored, or, if not possible, the criteria used to determine that period;
- the existence of the right to request from the controller rectification or erasure of personal data, or restriction of processing of personal data concerning the data subject, or to object to such processing;
- the existence of the right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority;
- where the personal data are not collected from the data subject, any available information as to their source;
- the existence of automated decision-making, including profiling, referred to in Article 22(1) and (4) of the GDPR and, at least in those cases, meaningful information about the logic involved, as well as the significance and envisaged consequences of such processing for the data subject.
Furthermore, the data subject shall have a right to obtain information as to whether personal data are transferred to a third country or to an international organisation. Where this is the case, the data subject shall have the right to be informed of the appropriate safeguards relating to the transfer.
c) Right to rectification
Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to obtain from the controller without undue delay the rectification of inaccurate personal data concerning him or her. Taking into account the purposes of the processing, the data subject shall have the right to have incomplete personal data completed, including by means of providing a supplementary statement.
d) Right to erasure (Right to be forgotten)
Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to obtain from the controller the erasure of personal data concerning him or her without undue delay, and the controller shall have the obligation to erase personal data without undue delay where one of the following grounds applies, as long as the processing is not necessary:
- The personal data are no longer necessary in relation to the purposes for which they were collected or otherwise processed.
- The data subject withdraws consent to which the processing is based according to point (a) of Article 6(1) of the GDPR, or point (a) of Article 9(2) of the GDPR, and where there is no other legal ground for the processing.
- The data subject objects to the processing pursuant to Article 21(1) of the GDPR and there are no overriding legitimate grounds for the processing, or the data subject objects to the processing pursuant to Article 21(2) of the GDPR.
- The personal data have been unlawfully processed.
- The personal data must be erased for compliance with a legal obligation in Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject.
- The personal data have been collected in relation to the offer of information society services referred to in Article 8(1) of the GDPR.
If one of the aforementioned reasons applies, and a data subject wishes to request the erasure of personal data stored, he or she may, at any time, contact the controller.
Where the controller has made personal data public and is obliged pursuant to Article 17(1) to erase the personal data, the controller, taking account of available technology and the cost of implementation, shall take reasonable steps, including technical measures, to inform other controllers processing the personal data that the data subject has requested erasure by such controllers of any links to, or copy or replication of, those personal data, as far as processing is not required.
e) Right of restriction of processing
Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to obtain from the controller restriction of processing where one of the following applies:
- The accuracy of the personal data is contested by the data subject, for a period enabling the controller to verify the accuracy of the personal data.
- The processing is unlawful and the data subject opposes the erasure of the personal data and requests instead the restriction of their use instead.
- The controller no longer needs the personal data for the purposes of the processing, but they are required by the data subject for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims.
- The data subject has objected to processing pursuant to Article 21(1) of the GDPR pending the verification whether the legitimate grounds of the controller override those of the data subject.
If one of the aforementioned conditions is met, and a data subject wishes to request the restriction of the processing of personal data stored, he or she may at any time contact the controller.
f) Right to data portability
Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator, to receive the personal data concerning him or her, which was provided to a controller, in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format. He or she shall have the right to transmit those data to another controller without hindrance from the controller to which the personal data have been provided, as long as the processing is based on consent pursuant to point (a) of Article 6(1) of the GDPR or point (a) of Article 9(2) of the GDPR, or on a contract pursuant to point (b) of Article 6(1) of the GDPR, and the processing is carried out by automated means, as long as the processing is not necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller.
Furthermore, in exercising his or her right to data portability pursuant to Article 20(1) of the GDPR, the data subject shall have the right to have personal data transmitted directly from one controller to another, where technically feasible and when doing so does not adversely affect the rights and freedoms of others.
g) Right to object
Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to object, on grounds relating to his or her particular situation, at any time, to processing of personal data concerning him or her, which is based on point (e) or (f) of Article 6(1) of the GDPR. This also applies to profiling based on these provisions.
In addition, the data subject has the right, on grounds relating to his or her particular situation, to object to processing of personal data concerning him or her for scientific or historical research purposes, or for statistical purposes pursuant to Article 89(1) of the GDPR, unless the processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out for reasons of public interest.
In order to exercise the right to object, the data subject may contact the controller. In addition, the data subject is free in the context of the use of information society services, and notwithstanding Directive 2002/58/EC, to use his or her right to object by automated means using technical specifications.
h) Automated individual decision-making, including profiling
Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator not to be subject to a decision based solely on automated processing, including profiling, which produces legal effects concerning him or her, or similarly significantly affects him or her, as long as the decision (1) is not is necessary for entering into, or the performance of, a contract between the data subject and a data controller, or (2) is not authorised by Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject and which also lays down suitable measures to safeguard the data subject’s rights and freedoms and legitimate interests, or (3) is not based on the data subject’s explicit consent.
i) Right to withdraw data protection consent
Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to withdraw his or her consent to processing of his or her personal data at any time.
9. Data protection provisions about the application and use of SlideShare
On this website, the controller has integrated SlideShare components. LinkedIn SlideShare as a file hosting service allows you to exchange and archive presentations and other documents, such as PDF files, videos, and webinars. The file hosting service allows users to upload media content in all popular formats, with the documents either publicly-accessible or private-labeled.
LinkedIn SlideShare provides so-called embedded codes for the media content (e.g. presentations, PDF files, videos, photos, etc.) stored there. Embedded codes are program codes that are embedded in the Internet pages to display external content on their own website. Embedded codes allow content to be reproduced on its own website without storing it on its own server, possibly violating the right of reproduction of the respective author of the content. A further advantage of the use of an embedded code is that the respective operator of a website does not use its own storage space and the own server is thereby relieved. An embedded code may be integrated at any point on another website so that an external content may also be inserted within the own text. The purpose of using LinkedIn SlideShare is to relieve our server and to avoid copyright infringements, while at the same time using third-party content.
With each call-up to our Internet site, which is equipped with a SlideShare component (embedded code), this component prompts the browser that you are using to download the according embedded data from SlideShare. During the course of this technical procedure, LinkedIn gains knowledge of which specific sub-page of our website is visited by the data subject.
If the data subject is logged in on SlideShare at the same time, SlideShare recognizes with each call-up to our website by the data subject and for the entire duration of their stay on our Internet site which specific sub-page was visited by the data subject. This information is collected by SlideShare and assigned to the respective SlideShare account of the data subject through LinkedIn.
LinkedIn obtains information via the SlideShare component that the data subject has visited our website, provided that the data subject is logged in at SlideShare at the time of the call-up to our website. This occurs regardless of whether the person clicks on the embedded media data or not. If such a transmission of information to SlideShare is not desirable for the data subject, then he or she may prevent this by logging off from their SlideShare account before a call-up to our website is made.
LinkedIn also uses affiliates such as Eire, Google Analytics, BlueKai, DoubleClick, Nielsen, Comscore, Eloqua, and Lotame. The setting of such cookies may be denied under https://www.linkedin.com/legal/cookie-policy. The applicable data protection provisions for LinkedIn is available under https://www.linkedin.com/legal/privacy-policy.
10. Data protection provisions about the application and use of Twitter
On this website, the controller has integrated components of Twitter. Twitter is a multilingual, publicly-accessible microblogging service on which users may publish and spread so-called ‘tweets,’ e.g. short messages, which are limited to 280 characters. These short messages are available for everyone, including those who are not logged on to Twitter. The tweets are also displayed to so-called followers of the respective user. Followers are other Twitter users who follow a user’s tweets. Furthermore, Twitter allows you to address a wide audience via hashtags, links or retweets.
The operating company of Twitter is Twitter, Inc., 1355 Market Street, Suite 900, San Francisco, CA 94103, UNITED STATES.
With each call-up to one of the individual pages of this Internet site, which is operated by the controller and on which a Twitter component (Twitter button) was integrated, the Internet browser on the information technology system of the data subject is automatically prompted to download a display of the corresponding Twitter component of Twitter. Further information about the Twitter buttons is available under https://about.twitter.com/de/resources/buttons. During the course of this technical procedure, Twitter gains knowledge of what specific sub-page of our website was visited by the data subject. The purpose of the integration of the Twitter component is a retransmission of the contents of this website to allow our users to introduce this web page to the digital world and increase our visitor numbers.
If the data subject is logged in at the same time on Twitter, Twitter detects with every call-up to our website by the data subject and for the entire duration of their stay on our Internet site which specific sub-page of our Internet page was visited by the data subject. This information is collected through the Twitter component and associated with the respective Twitter account of the data subject. If the data subject clicks on one of the Twitter buttons integrated on our website, then Twitter assigns this information to the personal Twitter user account of the data subject and stores the personal data.
Twitter receives information via the Twitter component that the data subject has visited our website, provided that the data subject is logged in on Twitter at the time of the call-up to our website. This occurs regardless of whether the person clicks on the Twitter component or not. If such a transmission of information to Twitter is not desirable for the data subject, then he or she may prevent this by logging off from their Twitter account before a call-up to our website is made.
The applicable data protection provisions of Twitter may be accessed under https://twitter.com/privacy?lang=en.
11. Data protection provisions about the application and use of YouTube
On this website, the controller has integrated components of YouTube. YouTube is an Internet video portal that enables video publishers to set video clips and other users free of charge, which also provides free viewing, review and commenting on them. YouTube allows you to publish all kinds of videos, so you can access both full movies and TV broadcasts, as well as music videos, trailers, and videos made by users via the Internet portal.
The operating company of YouTube is YouTube, LLC, 901 Cherry Ave., San Bruno, CA 94066, UNITED STATES. The YouTube, LLC is a subsidiary of Google Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Pkwy, Mountain View, CA 94043-1351, UNITED STATES.
With each call-up to one of the individual pages of this Internet site, which is operated by the controller and on which a YouTube component (YouTube video) was integrated, the Internet browser on the information technology system of the data subject is automatically prompted to download a display of the corresponding YouTube component. Further information about YouTube may be obtained under https://www.youtube.com/yt/about/en/. During the course of this technical procedure, YouTube and Google gain knowledge of what specific sub-page of our website was visited by the data subject.
If the data subject is logged in on YouTube, YouTube recognizes with each call-up to a sub-page that contains a YouTube video, which specific sub-page of our Internet site was visited by the data subject. This information is collected by YouTube and Google and assigned to the respective YouTube account of the data subject.
YouTube and Google will receive information through the YouTube component that the data subject has visited our website, if the data subject at the time of the call to our website is logged in on YouTube; this occurs regardless of whether the person clicks on a YouTube video or not. If such a transmission of this information to YouTube and Google is not desirable for the data subject, the delivery may be prevented if the data subject logs off from their own YouTube account before a call-up to our website is made.
YouTube’s data protection provisions, available at https://www.google.com/intl/en/policies/privacy/, provide information about the collection, processing and use of personal data by YouTube and Google.
12. Legal basis for the processing
Art. 6(1) lit. a GDPR serves as the legal basis for processing operations for which we obtain consent for a specific processing purpose. If the processing of personal data is necessary for the performance of a contract to which the data subject is party, as is the case, for example, when processing operations are necessary for the supply of goods or to provide any other service, the processing is based on Article 6(1) lit. b GDPR. The same applies to such processing operations which are necessary for carrying out pre-contractual measures, for example in the case of inquiries concerning our products or services. Is our company subject to a legal obligation by which processing of personal data is required, such as for the fulfillment of tax obligations, the processing is based on Art. 6(1) lit. c GDPR.
In rare cases, the processing of personal data may be necessary to protect the vital interests of the data subject or of another natural person. This would be the case, for example, if a visitor were injured in our company and his name, age, health insurance data or other vital information would have to be passed on to a doctor, hospital or other third party. Then the processing would be based on Art. 6(1) lit. d GDPR.
Finally, processing operations could be based on Article 6(1) lit. f GDPR. This legal basis is used for processing operations which are not covered by any of the abovementioned legal grounds, if processing is necessary for the purposes of the legitimate interests pursued by our company or by a third party, except where such interests are overridden by the interests or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject which require protection of personal data. Such processing operations are particularly permissible because they have been specifically mentioned by the European legislator. He considered that a legitimate interest could be assumed if the data subject is a client of the controller (Recital 47 Sentence 2 GDPR).