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MovingPandas

Since last week’s post, I’ve learned that there is an official OGC Moving Features JSON Encodings repository with more recent sample datasets, including MovingPoint, MovingPolygon, and Trajectory JSON examples.

The MovingPoint example seems to describe a storm, including its path (temporalGeometry), pressure, wind strength, and class values (temporalProperties):

You can give the current implementation a spin using this MyBinder notebook

An exciting future step would be to experiment with extending MovingPandas to support the MovingPolygon MF-JSON examples. MovingPolygons can change their size and orientation as they move. I’m not yet sure, however, if the number of polygon nodes can change between time steps and how this would be reflected by the prism concept presented in the draft specification:

Image source: https://ksookim.github.io/mf-json/

Many of you certainly have already heard of and/or even used Leafmap by Qiusheng Wu.

Leafmap is a Python package for interactive spatial analysis with minimal coding in Jupyter environments. It provides interactive maps based on folium and ipyleaflet, spatial analysis functions using WhiteboxTools and whiteboxgui, and additional GUI elements based on ipywidgets.

This way, Leafmap achieves a look and feel that is reminiscent of a desktop GIS:

Image source: https://github.com/giswqs/leafmap

Recently, Qiusheng has started an additional project: the geospatial meta package which brings together a variety of different Python packages for geospatial analysis. As such, the main goals of geospatial are to make it easier to discover and use the diverse packages that make up the spatial Python ecosystem.

Besides the usual suspects, such as GeoPandas and of course Leafmap, one of the packages included in geospatial is MovingPandas. Thanks, Qiusheng!

I’ve tested the mamba install today and am very happy with how this worked out. There is just one small hiccup currently, which is related to an upstream jinja2 issue. After installing geospatial, I therefore downgraded jinja:

mamba install -c conda-forge geospatial 
mamba install -c conda-forge jinja2=3.0

Of course, I had to try Leafmap and MovingPandas in action together. Therefore, I fired up one of the MovingPandas example notebook (here the example on clipping trajectories using polygons). As you can see, the integration is pretty smooth since Leafmap already support drawing GeoPandas GeoDataFrames and MovingPandas can convert trajectories to GeoDataFrames (both lines and points):

Clipped trajectory segments as linestrings in Leafmap
Leafmap includes an attribute table view that can be activated on user request to show, e.g. trajectory information
And, of course, we can also map the original trajectory points

Geospatial also includes the new dask-geopandas library which I’m very much looking forward to trying out next.

MovingPandas 0.9rc3 has just been released, including important fixes for local coordinate support. Sports analytics is just one example of movement data analysis that uses local rather than geographic coordinates.

Many movement data sources – such as soccer players’ movements extracted from video footage – use local reference systems. This means that x and y represent positions within an arbitrary frame, such as a soccer field.

Since Geopandas and GeoViews support handling and plotting local coordinates just fine, there is nothing stopping us from applying all MovingPandas functionality to this data. For example, to visualize the movement speed of players:

Of course, we can also plot other trajectory attributes, such as the team affiliation.

But one particularly useful feature is the ability to use custom background images, for example, to show the soccer field layout:

To access the full example notebook, visit: https://github.com/anitagraser/movingpandas/blob/master/tutorials/5-local-coordinates.ipynb

An update to the MovingPandas examples repository will follow shortly.

The latest v0.9 release is now available from conda-forge.

This release contains some really cool new algorithms:

The Kalman filter in action on the Geolife sample: smoother, less jiggly trajectories.
Top-Down Time Ratio generalization aka trajectory compression in action: reduces the number of positions along the trajectory without altering the spatiotemporal properties, such as speed, too much.

These new algorithms were contributed by Lyudmil Vladimirov and George S. Theodoropoulos.

Behind the scenes, Ray Bell took care of moving testing from Travis to Github Actions, and together we worked through the steps to ensure that the source code is now properly linted using flake8 and black.

Being able to work with so many awesome contributors has made this release really special for me. It’s great to see the project attracting more developer interest.

As always, all tutorials are available from the movingpandas-examples repository and on MyBinder:

The latest v0.8 release is now available from conda-forge.

New features include:

  • More convenient creation of TrajectoryCollection objects from (Geo)DataFrames (#137)
  • Support for different geometry column names (#112)

Last week, I also had the pleasure to speak about MovingPandas at Carto’s Spatial Data Science Conference SDSC21:

As always, all tutorials are available from the movingpandas-examples repository and on MyBinder:

The latest v0.7 release is now available from conda-forge.

New features include:

As always, all tutorials are available from the movingpandas-examples repository and on MyBinder:

In the last few days, there’s been a sharp rise in interest in vessel movements, and particularly, in understanding where and why vessels stop. Following the grounding of Ever Given in the Suez Canal, satellite images and vessel tracking data (AIS) visualizations are everywhere:

Using movement data analytics tools, such as MovingPandas, we can dig deeper and explore patterns in the data.

The MovingPandas.TrajectoryStopDetector is particularly useful in this situation. We can provide it with a Trajectory or TrajectoryCollection and let it detect all stops, that is, instances were the moving object stayed within a certain area (with a diameter of 1000m in this example) for a an extended duration (at least 3 hours).

stops = mpd.TrajectoryStopDetector(trajs).get_stop_segments(
    min_duration=timedelta(hours=3), max_diameter=1000)

The resulting stop segments include spatial and temporal information about the stop location and duration. To make this info more easily accessible, let’s turn the stop segment TrajectoryCollection into a point GeoDataFrame:

stop_pts = gpd.GeoDataFrame(columns=['geometry']).set_geometry('geometry')
stop_pts['stop_id'] = [track.id for track in stops.trajectories]
stop_pts= stop_pts.set_index('stop_id')

for stop in stops:
    stop_pts.at[stop.id, 'ID'] = stop.df['ID'][0]
    stop_pts.at[stop.id, 'datetime'] = stop.get_start_time()
    stop_pts.at[stop.id, 'duration_h'] = stop.get_duration().total_seconds()/3600
    stop_pts.at[stop.id, 'geometry'] = stop.get_start_location()

Indeed, I think the next version of MovingPandas should include a function that directly returns stops as points.

Now we can explore the stop information. For example, the map plot shows that stops are concentrated in three main areas: the northern and southern ends of the Canal, as well as the Great Bitter Lake in the middle. By looking at the timing of stops and their duration in a scatter plot, we can clearly see that the Ever Given stop (red) caused a chain reaction: the numerous points lining up on the diagonal of the scatter plot represent stops that very likely are results of the blockage:

Before the grounding, the stop distribution nicely illustrates the canal schedule. Vessels have to wait until it’s turn for their direction to go through:

You can see the full analysis workflow in the following video. Please turn on the captions for details.

Huge thanks to VesselsValue for supplying the data!

For another example of MovingPandas‘ stop dectection in action, have a look at Bryan R. Vallejo’s tutorial on detecting stops in bird tracking data which includes some awesome visualizations using KeplerGL:

Kepler.GL visualization by Bryan R. Vallejo

This post is part of a series. Read more about movement data in GIS.

The latest v0.5 release is now available from conda-forge.

New features include:

As always, all tutorials are available on MyBinder:

Detected stops (left) and trajectory split at stops (right)

This post introduces Holoviz Panel, a library that makes it possible to create really quick dashboards in notebook environments as well as more sophisticated custom interactive web apps and dashboards.

The following example shows how to use Panel to explore a dataset (a trajectory collection in this case) and different parameter settings (relating to trajectory generalization). All the Panel code we need is a dict that defines the parameters that we want to explore. Then we can use Panel’s interact function to automatically generate a dashboard for our custom plotting function:

import panel as pn

kw = dict(traj_id=(1, len(traj_collection)), 
          tolerance=(10, 100, 10), 
          generalizer=['douglas-peucker', 'min-distance'])
pn.interact(plot_generalized, **kw)

Click to view the resulting dashboard in full resolution:

The plotting function uses the parameters to generate a Holoviews plot. First it fetches a specific trajectory from the trajectory collection. Then it generalizes the trajectory using the specified parameter settings. As you can see, we can easily combine maps and other plots to visualize different aspects of the data:

def plot_generalized(traj_id=1, tolerance=10, generalizer='douglas-peucker'):
  my_traj = traj_collection.get_trajectory(traj_id).to_crs(CRS(4088))
  if generalizer=='douglas-peucker':
    generalized = mpd.DouglasPeuckerGeneralizer(my_traj).generalize(tolerance)
  else:
    generalized = mpd.MinDistanceGeneralizer(my_traj).generalize(tolerance)
  generalized.add_speed(overwrite=True)
  return ( 
    generalized.hvplot(
      title='Trajectory {} (tolerance={})'.format(my_traj.id, tolerance), 
      c='speed', cmap='Viridis', colorbar=True, clim=(0,20), 
      line_width=10, width=500, height=500) + 
    generalized.df['speed'].hvplot.hist(
      title='Speed histogram', width=300, height=500) 
    )

Trajectory collections and generalization functions used in this example are part of the MovingPandas library. If you are interested in movement data analysis, you should check it out! You can find this example notebook in the MovingPandas tutorial section.

MovingPandas has come a long way since 2018 when I started to experiment with GeoPandas for trajectory data handling.

This week, MovingPandas passed peer review and was approved for pyOpenSci. This technical review process was extremely helpful in ensuring code, project, and documentation quality. I would strongly recommend it to everyone working on new data science libraries!

The lastest v0.3 release is now available from conda-forge.

All tutorials are available on MyBinder

New features include:

  • Support for GeoPandas 0.7
  • Trajectory collection aggregation functions to generate flow maps

 

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