Tag Archives: movement data

Did you know that MovingPandas also supports local image coordinates? Indeed, it does.

In today’s post, we will explore how we can use this feature to analyze bicycle tracks extracted from video footage published by Michael Szell @mszll:

The bicycle trajectory coordinates are stored in two separate lists: xs_640x360 and ys640x360:

This format is kind of similar to the Kaggle Taxi dataset, we worked with in the previous post. However, to use the solution we implemented there, we need to combine the x and y coordinates into nice (x,y) tuples:

df['coordinates'] = df.apply(
    lambda row: list(zip(row['xs_640x360'], row['ys_640x360'])), axis=1)
df.drop(columns=['xs_640x360', 'ys_640x360'], inplace=True)

Afterwards, we can create the points and compute the proper timestamps from the frame numbers:

def compute_datetime(row):
    # some educated guessing going on here: the paper states that the video covers 2021-06-09 07:00-08:00
    d = datetime(2021,6,9,7,0,0) + (row['frame_in'] + row['running_number']) * timedelta(seconds=2)
    return d
def create_point(xy):
        return Point(xy)
    except TypeError:  # when there are nan values in the input data
        return None
new_df = df.head().explode('coordinates')
new_df['geometry'] = new_df['coordinates'].apply(create_point)
new_df['running_number'] = new_df.groupby('id').cumcount()
new_df['datetime'] = new_df.apply(compute_datetime, axis=1)
new_df.drop(columns=['coordinates', 'frame_in', 'running_number'], inplace=True)

Once the points and timestamps are ready, we can create the MovingPandas TrajectoryCollection. Note how we explicitly state that there is no CRS for this dataset (crs=None):

trajs = mpd.TrajectoryCollection(
    traj_id_col='id',  t='datetime', crs=None)

Plotting trajectories with image coordinates

Similarly, to plot these trajectories, we should tell hvplot that it should not fetch any background map tiles (’tiles’:None) and that the coordinates are not geographic (‘geo’:False):

If you want to explore the full source code, you can find my Github fork with the Jupyter notebook at:

The repository also contains a camera image of the intersection, which we can use as a background for our trajectory plots:

bg_img = hv.RGB.load_image('img/intersection2.png', bounds=(0,0,640,360)) 

One important caveat is that speed will be calculated in pixels per second. So when we plot the bicycle speed, the segments closer to the camera will appear faster than the segments in the background:

To fix this issue, we would have to correct for the distortions of the camera lens and perspective. I’m sure that there is specialized software for this task but, for the purpose of this post, I’m going to grab the opportunity to finally test out the VectorBender plugin.

Georeferencing the trajectories using QGIS VectorBender plugin

Let’s load the five test trajectories and the camera image to QGIS. To make sure that they align properly, both are set to the same CRS and I’ve created the following basic world file for the camera image:


Then we can use the VectorBender tools to georeference the trajectories by linking locations from the camera image to locations on aerial images. You can see the whole process in action here:

After around 15 minutes linking control points, VectorBender comes up with the following georeferenced trajectory result:

Not bad for a quick-and-dirty hack. Some points on the borders of the image could not be georeferenced since I wasn’t always able to identify suitable control points at the camera image borders. So it won’t be perfect but should improve speed estimates.


Kaggle’s “Taxi Trajectory Data from ECML/PKDD 15: Taxi Trip Time Prediction (II) Competition” is one of the most used mobility / vehicle trajectory datasets in computer science. However, in contrast to other similar datasets, Kaggle’s taxi trajectories are provided in a format that is not readily usable in MovingPandas since the spatiotemporal information is provided as:

  • TIMESTAMP: (integer) Unix Timestamp (in seconds). It identifies the trip’s start;
  • POLYLINE: (String): It contains a list of GPS coordinates (i.e. WGS84 format) mapped as a string. The beginning and the end of the string are identified with brackets (i.e. [ and ], respectively). Each pair of coordinates is also identified by the same brackets as [LONGITUDE, LATITUDE]. This list contains one pair of coordinates for each 15 seconds of trip. The last list item corresponds to the trip’s destination while the first one represents its start;

Therefore, we need to create a DataFrame with one point + timestamp per row before we can use MovingPandas to create Trajectories and analyze them.

But first things first. Let’s download the dataset:

import datetime
import pandas as pd
import geopandas as gpd
import movingpandas as mpd
import opendatasets as od
from os.path import exists
from shapely.geometry import Point

input_file_path = 'taxi-trajectory/train.csv'

def get_porto_taxi_from_kaggle():
    if not exists(input_file_path):"")

df = pd.read_csv(input_file_path, nrows=10, usecols=['TRIP_ID', 'TAXI_ID', 'TIMESTAMP', 'MISSING_DATA', 'POLYLINE'])
df.POLYLINE = df.POLYLINE.apply(eval)  # string to list

And now for the remodelling:

def unixtime_to_datetime(unix_time):
    return datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(unix_time)

def compute_datetime(row):
    unix_time = row['TIMESTAMP']
    offset = row['running_number'] * datetime.timedelta(seconds=15)
    return unixtime_to_datetime(unix_time) + offset

def create_point(xy):
        return Point(xy)
    except TypeError:  # when there are nan values in the input data
        return None
new_df = df.explode('POLYLINE')
new_df['geometry'] = new_df['POLYLINE'].apply(create_point)
new_df['running_number'] = new_df.groupby('TRIP_ID').cumcount()
new_df['datetime'] = new_df.apply(compute_datetime, axis=1)
new_df.drop(columns=['POLYLINE', 'TIMESTAMP', 'running_number'], inplace=True)

And that’s it. Now we can create the trajectories:

trajs = mpd.TrajectoryCollection(
    gpd.GeoDataFrame(new_df, crs=4326), 
    traj_id_col='TRIP_ID', obj_id_col='TAXI_ID', t='datetime')
trajs.hvplot(title='Kaggle Taxi Trajectory Data', tiles='CartoLight')

That’s it. Now our MovingPandas.TrajectoryCollection is ready for further analysis.

By the way, the plot above illustrates a new feature in the recent MovingPandas 0.16 release which, among other features, introduced plots with arrow markers that show the movement direction. Other new features include a completely new custom distance, speed, and acceleration unit support. This means that, for example, instead of always getting speed in meters per second, you can now specify your desired output units, including km/h, mph, or nm/h (knots).

In the previous post, we — creatively ;-) — used MobilityDB to visualize stationary IOT sensor measurements.

This post covers the more obvious use case of visualizing trajectories. Thus bringing together the MobilityDB trajectories created in Detecting close encounters using MobilityDB 1.0 and visualization using Temporal Controller.

Like in the previous post, the valueAtTimestamp function does the heavy lifting. This time, we also apply it to the geometry time series column called trip:

SELECT mmsi,
    valueAtTimestamp(trip, '2017-05-07 08:55:40') geom,
    valueAtTimestamp(SOG, '2017-05-07 08:55:40') SOG
FROM "public"."ships"

Using this SQL query, we again set up a — not yet Temporal Controller-controlled — QueryLayer.

To configure Temporal Controller to update the timestamp in our SQL query, we again need to run the Python script from the previous post.

With this done, we are all set up to animate and explore the movement patterns in our dataset:

This post is part of a series. Read more about movement data in GIS.

It’s been a while since we last talked about MobilityDB in 2019 and 2020. Since then, the project has come a long way. It joined OSGeo as a community project and formed a first PSC, including the project founders Mahmoud Sakr and Esteban Zimányi as well as Vicky Vergara (of pgRouting fame) and yours truly.

This post is a quick teaser tutorial from zero to computing closest points of approach (CPAs) between trajectories using MobilityDB.

Setting up MobilityDB with Docker

The easiest way to get started with MobilityDB is to use the ready-made Docker container provided by the project. I’m using Docker and WSL (Windows Subsystem Linux on Windows 10) here. Installing WLS/Docker is out of scope of this post. Please refer to the official documentation for your operating system.

Once Docker is ready, we can pull the official container and fire it up:

docker pull mobilitydb/mobilitydb
docker volume create mobilitydb_data
docker run --name "mobilitydb" -d -p 25432:5432 -v mobilitydb_data:/var/lib/postgresql mobilitydb/mobilitydb
psql -h localhost -p 25432 -d mobilitydb -U docker

Currently, the container provides PostGIS 3.2 and MobilityDB 1.0:

Loading movement data into MobilityDB

Once the container is running, we can already connect to it from QGIS. This is my preferred way to load data into MobilityDB because we can simply drag-and-drop any timestamped point layer into the database:

For this post, I’m using an AIS data sample in the region of Gothenburg, Sweden.

After loading this data into a new table called ais, it is necessary to remove duplicate and convert timestamps:

FROM ais;

ALTER TABLE AISInputFiltered ADD COLUMN t timestamp;
UPDATE AISInputFiltered SET t = "Timestamp"::timestamp;

Afterwards, we can create the MobilityDB trajectories:

tgeompoint_seq(array_agg(tgeompoint_inst(Geom, t) ORDER BY t)) AS Trip,
tfloat_seq(array_agg(tfloat_inst("SOG", t) ORDER BY t) FILTER (WHERE "SOG" IS NOT NULL) ) AS SOG,
tfloat_seq(array_agg(tfloat_inst("COG", t) ORDER BY t) FILTER (WHERE "COG" IS NOT NULL) ) AS COG
FROM AISInputFiltered

ALTER TABLE Ships ADD COLUMN Traj geometry;
UPDATE Ships SET Traj = trajectory(Trip);

Once this is done, we can load the resulting Ships layer and the trajectories will be loaded as lines:

Computing closest points of approach

To compute the closest point of approach between two moving objects, MobilityDB provides a shortestLine function. To be correct, this function computes the line connecting the nearest approach point between the two tgeompoint_seq. In addition, we can use the time-weighted average function twavg to compute representative average movement speeds and eliminate stationary or very slowly moving objects:

SELECT S1.MMSI mmsi1, S2.MMSI mmsi2, 
       shortestLine(S1.trip, S2.trip) Approach,
       ST_Length(shortestLine(S1.trip, S2.trip)) distance
FROM Ships S1, Ships S2
twavg(S1.SOG) > 1 AND twavg(S2.SOG) > 1 AND
dwithin(S1.trip, S2.trip, 0.003)

In the QGIS Browser panel, we can right-click the MobilityDB connection to bring up an SQL input using Execute SQL:

The resulting query layer shows where moving objects get close to each other:

To better see what’s going on, we’ll look at individual CPAs:

Having a closer look with the Temporal Controller

Since our filtered AIS layer has proper timestamps, we can animate it using the Temporal Controller. This enables us to replay the movement and see what was going on in a certain time frame.

I let the animation run and stopped it once I spotted a close encounter. Looking at the AIS points and the shortest line, we can see that MobilityDB computed the CPAs along the trajectories:

A more targeted way to investigate a specific CPA is to use the Temporal Controllers’ fixed temporal range mode to jump to a specific time frame. This is helpful if we already know the time frame we are interested in. For the CPA use case, this means that we can look up the timestamp of a nearby AIS position and set up the Temporal Controller accordingly:


I hope you enjoyed this quick dive into MobilityDB. For more details, including talks by the project founders, check out the project website.

This post is part of a series. Read more about movement data in GIS.

Since last week’s post, I’ve learned that there is an official OGC Moving Features JSON Encodings repository with more recent sample datasets, including MovingPoint, MovingPolygon, and Trajectory JSON examples.

The MovingPoint example seems to describe a storm, including its path (temporalGeometry), pressure, wind strength, and class values (temporalProperties):

You can give the current implementation a spin using this MyBinder notebook

An exciting future step would be to experiment with extending MovingPandas to support the MovingPolygon MF-JSON examples. MovingPolygons can change their size and orientation as they move. I’m not yet sure, however, if the number of polygon nodes can change between time steps and how this would be reflected by the prism concept presented in the draft specification:

Image source:

Many of you certainly have already heard of and/or even used Leafmap by Qiusheng Wu.

Leafmap is a Python package for interactive spatial analysis with minimal coding in Jupyter environments. It provides interactive maps based on folium and ipyleaflet, spatial analysis functions using WhiteboxTools and whiteboxgui, and additional GUI elements based on ipywidgets.

This way, Leafmap achieves a look and feel that is reminiscent of a desktop GIS:

Image source:

Recently, Qiusheng has started an additional project: the geospatial meta package which brings together a variety of different Python packages for geospatial analysis. As such, the main goals of geospatial are to make it easier to discover and use the diverse packages that make up the spatial Python ecosystem.

Besides the usual suspects, such as GeoPandas and of course Leafmap, one of the packages included in geospatial is MovingPandas. Thanks, Qiusheng!

I’ve tested the mamba install today and am very happy with how this worked out. There is just one small hiccup currently, which is related to an upstream jinja2 issue. After installing geospatial, I therefore downgraded jinja:

mamba install -c conda-forge geospatial 
mamba install -c conda-forge jinja2=3.0

Of course, I had to try Leafmap and MovingPandas in action together. Therefore, I fired up one of the MovingPandas example notebook (here the example on clipping trajectories using polygons). As you can see, the integration is pretty smooth since Leafmap already support drawing GeoPandas GeoDataFrames and MovingPandas can convert trajectories to GeoDataFrames (both lines and points):

Clipped trajectory segments as linestrings in Leafmap
Leafmap includes an attribute table view that can be activated on user request to show, e.g. trajectory information
And, of course, we can also map the original trajectory points

Geospatial also includes the new dask-geopandas library which I’m very much looking forward to trying out next.

MovingPandas 0.9rc3 has just been released, including important fixes for local coordinate support. Sports analytics is just one example of movement data analysis that uses local rather than geographic coordinates.

Many movement data sources – such as soccer players’ movements extracted from video footage – use local reference systems. This means that x and y represent positions within an arbitrary frame, such as a soccer field.

Since Geopandas and GeoViews support handling and plotting local coordinates just fine, there is nothing stopping us from applying all MovingPandas functionality to this data. For example, to visualize the movement speed of players:

Of course, we can also plot other trajectory attributes, such as the team affiliation.

But one particularly useful feature is the ability to use custom background images, for example, to show the soccer field layout:

To access the full example notebook, visit:

An update to the MovingPandas examples repository will follow shortly.

This post is part of a series. Read more about movement data in GIS.

After writing “Towards a template for exploring movement data” last year, I spent a lot of time thinking about how to develop a solid approach for movement data exploration that would help analysts and scientists to better understand their datasets. Finally, my search led me to the excellent paper “A protocol for data exploration to avoid common statistical problems” by Zuur et al. (2010). What they had done for the analysis of common ecological datasets was very close to what I was trying to achieve for movement data. I followed Zuur et al.’s approach of a exploratory data analysis (EDA) protocol and combined it with a typology of movement data quality problems building on Andrienko et al. (2016). Finally, I brought it all together in a Jupyter notebook implementation which you can now find on Github.

There are two options for running the notebook:

  1. The repo contains a Dockerfile you can use to spin up a container including all necessary datasets and a fitting Python environment.
  2. Alternatively, you can download the datasets manually and set up the Python environment using the provided environment.yml file.

The dataset contains over 10 million location records. Most visualizations are based on Holoviz Datashader with a sprinkling of MovingPandas for visualizing individual trajectories.

Point density map of 10 million location records, visualized using Datashader

Line density map for detecting gaps in tracks, visualized using Datashader

Example trajectory with strong jitter, visualized using MovingPandas & GeoViews


I hope this reference implementation will provide a starting point for many others who are working with movement data and who want to structure their data exploration workflow.

If you want to dive deeper, here’s the paper:

[1] Graser, A. (2021). An exploratory data analysis protocol for identifying problems in continuous movement data. Journal of Location Based Services. doi:10.1080/17489725.2021.1900612.

(If you don’t have institutional access to the journal, the publisher provides 50 free copies using this link. Once those are used up, just leave a comment below and I can email you a copy.)


This post is part of a series. Read more about movement data in GIS.

Yesterday, I had the pleasure to speak at the RGS-IBG GIScience Research Group seminar. The talk presents methods for the exploration of movement patterns in massive quasi-continuous GPS tracking datasets containing billions of records using distributed computing approaches.

Here’s the full recording of my talk and follow-up discussion:

and slides are available as well.

This post is part of a series. Read more about movement data in GIS.

The Geospatial Dev Room at FOSDEM 2021 was a great event that (virtually) brought together a very diverse group of geo people.

All talk recordings are now available publicly at:

In line with the main themes of this blog, I’d particularly like to highlight the following three talks:

MoveTK: the movement toolkit A library for understanding movement by Aniket Mitra

Telegram Bot For Navigation: A perfect map app for a neighbourhood doesn’t need a map by Ilya Zverev

Spatial data exploration in Jupyter notebooks by yours truly

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